Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.
force ibs=BYTES and obs=BYTES
convert BYTES bytes at a time
convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list
copy only BLOCKS input blocks
read BYTES bytes at a time
read from FILE instead of stdin
read as per the comma separated symbol list
write BYTES bytes at a time
write to FILE instead of stdout
write as per the comma separated symbol list
skip BLOCKS obs-sized blocks at start of output
skip BLOCKS ibs-sized blocks at start of input
suppress transfer statistics
BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes:
xM M, c 1, w 2, b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024,
GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.
Each CONV symbol may be:
from EBCDIC to ASCII
from ASCII to EBCDIC
from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC
pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size
replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline
change upper case to lower case
do not create the output file
fail if the output file already exists
do not truncate the output file
change lower case to upper case
swap every pair of input bytes
continue after read errors
pad every input block with NULs to ibs-size; when used
with block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs
fdatasync physically write output file data before finishing
fsync likewise, but also write metadata
Each FLAG symbol may be:
append mode (makes sense only for output)
use direct I/O for data
use synchronized I/O for data
likewise, but also for metadata
use non-blocking I/O
do not follow symlinks
do not assign controlling terminal from file
Sending a USR1 signal to a running `dd' process makes it
print I/O statistics to standard error and then resume copying.
18335302+0 records in
18335302+0 records out
9387674624 bytes (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.
Report bugs to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Copyright 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of
the GNU General Public License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for
is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the
programs are properly installed at your site, the command